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Halloween: Primal Fear: The Face of Fear

Halloween: Primal Fear: The Face of Fear



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Dissociative Identity Disorder : Sybil And Primal Fear

Rachel Milbourn Dr. Ozegovic Abnormal Psychology 210 7 October 2015 Dissociative Identity Disorder: Sybil and Primal Fear In the films “Sybil,” and “Primal Fear” both characters Sybil, and Aaron seem to be suffering from dissociative identity disorder. According to Comer (2014), someone with dissociative identity disorder, or also known as multiple personality disorder establishes two or more recognizable personalities, often called alternate or sub personalities. Each personality has their own


The (Only) 5 Fears We All Share

THE BASICS

President Franklin Roosevelt famously asserted, "The only thing we have to fear, is fear itself."

I think he was right: Fear of fear probably causes more problems in our lives than fear itself.

That claim needs a bit of explaining, I know.

Fear has gotten a bad rap. And it's not nearly as complicated as we try to make it. A simple and useful definition of fear is: An anxious feeling, caused by our anticipation
of some imagined event or experience.

Medical experts tell us that the anxious feeling we get when we're afraid is a standardized biological reaction. It's pretty much the same set of body signals, whether we're afraid of getting bitten by a dog, getting turned down for a date, or getting our taxes audited.

Fear, like all other emotions, is basically information. It offers us knowledge and understanding—if we choose to accept it.

And there are only five basic fears, out of which almost all of our other so-called fears are manufactured. These are:

  1. Extinction—the fear of annihilation, of ceasing to exist. This is a more fundamental way to express it than just "fear of death." The idea of no longer being arouses a primary existential anxiety in all normal humans. Consider that panicky feeling you get when you look over the edge of a high building.
  2. Mutilation—the fear of losing any part of our precious bodily structure the thought of having our body's boundaries invaded, or of losing the integrity of any organ, body part, or natural function. Anxiety about animals, such as bugs, spiders, snakes, and other creepy things arises from fear of mutilation.
  3. Loss of Autonomy—the fear of being immobilized, paralyzed, restricted, enveloped, overwhelmed, entrapped, imprisoned, smothered, or otherwise controlled by circumstances beyond our control. In physical form, it's commonly known as claustrophobia, but it also extends to our social interactions and relationships.
  4. Separation—the fear of abandonment, rejection, and loss of connectedness of becoming a non-person—not wanted, respected, or valued by anyone else. The "silent treatment," when imposed by a group, can have a devastating effect on its target.
  5. Ego-death—the fear of humiliation, shame, or any other mechanism of profound self-disapproval that threatens the loss of integrity of the self the fear of the shattering or disintegration of one's constructed sense of lovability, capability, and worthiness.

These can be thought of as forming a simple hierarchy, or "feararchy":

Think about the various common labels we put on our fears. Start with the easy ones: fear of heights or falling is basically the fear of extinction (possibly accompanied by significant mutilation, but that's sort of secondary). Fear of failure? Read it as fear of ego-death. Fear of rejection? That's fear of separation, and probably also fear of ego-death. The terror many people have at the idea of having to speak in public is basically fear of ego-death. Fear of intimacy, or "fear of commitment," is basically fear of losing one's autonomy.

Some other emotions we know by various popular names are just aliases for these primary fears. If you track them down to their most basic levels, the basic fears show through. Jealousy, for example, is an expression of the fear of separation, or devaluation: "She'll value him more than she values me." At its extreme, it can express the fear of ego-death: "I'll be a worthless person." Envy works the same way.

Shame and guilt express the fear of—or the actual condition of—separation and even ego-death. The same is true for embarrassment and humiliation.

Fear is often the base emotion on which anger floats. Oppressed people rage against their oppressors because they fear—or actually experience—loss of autonomy and even ego-death. The destruction of a culture or a religion by an invading occupier may be experienced as a kind of collective ego-death. Those who make us fearful will also make us angry.

Religious bigotry and intolerance may express the fear of ego-death on a cosmic level, and can even extend to existential anxiety: "If my god isn't the right god, or the best god, then I'll be stuck without a god. Without god on my side, I'll be at the mercy of the impersonal forces of the environment. My ticket could be canceled at any moment, without a reason."

THE BASICS

Some of our fears, of course, have basic survival value. Others, however, are learned reflexes that can be weakened or re-learned.

That strange idea of "fearing our fears" becomes less strange when we realize that many of our avoidance reactions—turning down an invitation to a party if we tend to be uncomfortable in groups putting off a doctor's appointment or not asking for a raise—are instant reflexes that are reactions to the memories of fear. They happen so quickly that we don't actually experience the full effect of the fear. We experience a "micro-fear"—a reaction that's a kind of shorthand code for the real fear. This reflex reaction has the same effect of causing us to evade and avoid as the real fear. This is why it's fairly accurate to say that many of our so-called fear reactions are actually the fears of fears.

When we let go of our notion of fear as the welling up of evil forces within us—the Freudian motif—and begin to see fear and its companion emotions as information, we can think about them consciously. And the more clearly and calmly we can articulate the origins of the fear, the less our fears will frighten us and control us.

Albrecht, Karl. "Practical Intelligence: the Art and Science of Common Sense." New York: Wiley, 2007.


The fear of being buried alive peaked during the cholera epidemics of the 19th century, but accounts of unintentional live burial have been recorded even earlier. The fears of being buried alive were heightened by reports of doctors and accounts in literature and the newspapers. As well as dealing with the subject in "The Fall of the House of Usher" and "The Cask of Amontillado", Edgar Allan Poe wrote "The Premature Burial", which was published in 1844. It contained accounts of supposedly genuine cases of premature burial as well as detailing the narrator's own (perceived) interment while still alive.

The general fear of premature burial led to the invention of many safety devices which could be incorporated into coffins. Most consisted of some type of device for communication to the outside world such as a cord attached to a bell that the interred person could ring should they revive after the burial. A safety coffin of this type appears in the 1978 film The First Great Train Robbery, [1] and more recently in the 2018 film The Nun. [2] Other variations on the bell included flags and pyrotechnics. Some designs included ladders, escape hatches, and even feeding tubes, but many forgot a method for providing air.

Robert Robinson died in Manchester in 1791. A movable glass pane was inserted in his coffin, and the mausoleum had a door for purposes of inspection by a watchman, who was to see if he breathed on the glass. He instructed his relatives to visit his grave periodically to check that he was still dead. [3]

The first recorded safety coffin was constructed on the orders of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick before his death in 1792. He had a window installed to allow light in, an air tube to provide a supply of fresh air, and instead of having the lid nailed down he had a lock fitted. In a special pocket of his shroud he had two keys, one for the coffin lid and a second for the tomb door.

P.G. Pessler, a German priest, suggested in 1798 that all coffins have a tube inserted from which a cord would run to the church bells. If an individual had been buried alive they could draw attention to themselves by ringing the bells. This idea, while highly impractical, led to the first designs of safety coffins equipped with signalling systems. Pessler's colleague, Pastor Beck, suggested that coffins should have a small trumpet-like tube attached. Each day the local priest could check the state of putrefaction of the corpse by sniffing the odours emanating from the tube. If no odour was detected or the priest heard cries for help the coffin could be dug up and the occupant rescued.

Dr. Adolf Gutsmuth was buried alive several times to demonstrate a safety coffin of his own design, and in 1822 he stayed underground for several hours and even ate a meal of soup, bratwurst, marzipan, sauerkraut, spätzle, beer, and for dessert, prinzregententorte, delivered to him through the coffin's feeding tube.

The 1820s also saw the use of "portable death chambers" in Germany. A small chamber, equipped with a bell for signalling and a window for viewing the body, was constructed over an empty grave. Watchmen would check each day for signs of life or decomposition in each of the chambers. If the bell was rung the "body" could be immediately removed, but if the watchman observed signs of putrefaction in the corpse, a door in the floor of the chamber could be opened and the body would drop down into the grave. A panel could then be slid in to cover the grave and the upper chamber removed and reused.

In 1829, Dr. Johann Gottfried Taberger designed a system using a bell which would alert the cemetery nightwatchman. The corpse would have strings attached to its hands, head and feet. A housing around the bell above ground prevented it ringing accidentally. An improvement over previous designs, the housing prevented rainwater from running down the tube and netting prevented insects from entering the coffin. If the bell rang the watchman had to insert a second tube and pump air into the coffin with a bellows to allow the occupant to survive until the casket could be dug up.

The systems using cords tied to the body suffered from the drawback that the natural processes of decay often caused the body to swell or shift position, causing accidental tension on the cords and a "false positive". Franz Vester's 1868 "Burial Case" overcame this problem by adding a tube through which the face of the "corpse" could be viewed. If the interred person came to, they could ring the bell (if not strong enough to ascend the tube by means of a supplied ladder) and the watchmen could check to see if the person had genuinely returned to life or whether it was merely a movement of the corpse. Vester's design allowed the viewing tube to be removed and reused once death was assured.

Count Michel de Karnice-Karnicki, a chamberlain to the Tsar of Russia, patented his own safety coffin, called Le Karnice, in 1897 and demonstrated it at the Sorbonne the following year. His design detected movement in the coffin and opened a tube to supply air while simultaneously raising a flag and ringing a bell. Le Karnice never caught on: it was too sensitive to allow for even a slight movement in a decaying corpse, and a demonstration in which one of Karnice-Karnicki's assistants had been buried alive ended badly when the signalling systems failed. Luckily, the breathing tube had activated and the assistant was disinterred unharmed, but the reputation of Le Karnice was damaged beyond repair.

In 1995 a modern safety coffin was patented by Fabrizio Caselli. His design included an emergency alarm, intercom system, a torch (flashlight), breathing apparatus, and both a heart monitor and stimulator. [4]

Despite the fear of burial while still alive, there are no documented cases of anybody being saved by a safety coffin. [ citation needed ] It is worth noting that the practice of modern-day embalming as practiced in some countries (notably in North America) has, for the most part, eliminated the fear of "premature burial", as no one has ever survived that process once completed. [ citation needed ]

Folk etymology has suggested that the phrases "saved by the bell", "dead ringer" and "graveyard shift" come from the use of safety coffins in the Victorian era. [5] [6] The "saved by the bell" expression is actually well established to have come from boxing, where a boxer who is still on their feet but close to being knocked down can be saved from losing by the bell ringing to indicate the end of the round. [7]

The 2009 song "The Tale of Solomon Snell" by Duncan Sheik from his album Whisper House tells the story of a man who for his burial gives instructions to be buried in a safety coffin with a bell mechanism attached but ultimately fails to be saved due to the person in charge of listening to the bell getting drunk.


Primal Fear

The History Channel’s Primal Fear sets out to explore the scientific and societal underpinnings of some of our deepest fears, helping us to understand why so many of us are frightened of snakes, or why every culture in the world has a bogeyman. Unfortunately, it’s not satisfied with just explaining we’re afraid of these things, or how the sensation of fear works in our bodies and minds. It also strives to provide some chills of it’s own, and here, hampered by low budget recreations and amateur hour CGI, this laudably intentioned documentary falls laughably on it face.

The most interesting moments of Primal Fear come during interviews with biologists, psychologists, doctors and anthropologists who discuss why and how fears develop, as well as what they do to us. Fear is traced back along evolutionary lines, and given its proper place among our most important and basic emotions. For early hominids, knowing when to be afraid of something was an invaluable trait for survival in a harsh and unforgiving world. And for as much as we’ve progressed from our sharp rock-wielding ancestors, many of our basic fears can be followed directly back to the days of loin cloths and clubs.

Many of our fears are simple matters of evolution. Why do snakes give so many of us the creeps? Because being afraid of snakes is a good way to reduce your chances of being bitten by a snake. This in turn increases ones chances of surviving and passing on their genetic material, which on some level includes knowing that snakes are bad news. Consequently, nature selected for a certain degree of well-reasoned cowardice, with more adventuresome individuals rendered brave and noble cul de sacs on the map of human evolution. Other fears, like fear of sharks and terrorism, are more recent developments, perpetuated by mass media that brings rare but horrific incidents like shark attacks into living rooms and front pages throughout the world.

Unfortunately, all of this interesting subject matter is crippled by distractingly bad CGI effects, low rent dramatic re-creations and shoddy editing. The graphic for a burst of hysterical strength is essentially a Visible Human model getting hit by lightning bolts against a glowing purple backdrop. And while this same graphic looks a little better when it’s demonstrating how snakes kill their victims, by the time it’s demonstrating how what you look like buried alive, it’s gotten kind of old. Dramatizations of episodes like bear attacks are strobelit, shaken camera affairs that are more comical than intimidating, inducing cringes for all the wrong reasons.

Primal Fear also suffers from some lazy editing. It switches narrative gears without warning, using ham-fisted segues that resemble PowerPoint presentations. Even more infuriatingly, the DVD is presented with commercial breaks intact. And as with any media that relies on a group of interviews for expert testimony, the interview subjects, doctors, professors and expert witnesses vary widely in their level of comfort on screen.

The covering of a lot of different fears results in a plethora of interesting information on display, but the context of it suffers. Certainly, there’s something to be said for a film in which you can learn something about smilodons, the French revolution, the Devil’s Bible, rat physiology, the Victorian fad of safety coffins and modern virtual reality treatments for mental trauma. But this broad focus costs the film time that could be devoted to really exploring the nature of fear, how it makes us tick, and other deeper questions that are never addressed.

For instance, what is it about being afraid that gets us off? Why do we now, through roller coasters, slasher flicks and survival horror video games, actively seek out a sensation that was designed to warn us of our probable imminent demise? What is it about fear that has turned it into a thriving industry? The filmmakers do themselves and their audience a disservice by turning away from these deeper questions.

While Primal Fear shows promise as a study of why our fears are so important, it squanders it’s potential, providing only shallow snapshots of some of the many things that scare us. Eventually, the film simply comes to feel like a slideshow of misery, a sort of terrible America’s Funniest Home Videos. Putting the world’s most horrible natural disasters, nightclub fires, mine collapses and animal attacks on display is more emotionally manipulative than genuinely informative. And expert testimony on suffocation, drowning and burning to death quickly comes to seem ghoulish.

It’s a shame that a film that could have been an intriguing exploration of a misunderstood and elemental human emotion becomes, through the squeamishness and seeming disinterest of the filmmakers, a pallid, PG rated Faces of Death that seeks to simultaneously shock and inform, but ultimately fails at both.


The Neuroscience of Fear and Loathing

Fear is an innate emotion that is triggered by environmental stimuli perceived as potentially threatening or harmful. This emotion is so basic to human existence that its expression on a human face can be accurately recognized by anyone in the world. Thus, fear is a highly evolved, universal emotion whose existence is critical to survival.

Fear has long been thought to arise due to activity of cells in the amygdala, an almond-shaped brain structure located in the medial temporal lobe. In 1939, Heinrich Klüver and Paul Bucy reported that surgical removal of both temporal lobes (including the amygdalae) in monkeys produced a dramatic behavioral condition now referred to as the Klüver-Bucy syndrome. After surgery, the monkeys, who previously feared humans, no longer showed such fear. They also showed a number of other behavioral changes, including hyperorality (a compulsion to examine objects by mouth), hypersexuality (excessive sexual behavior), hypermetamorphosis (excessive tendency to react to visual stimuli), and visual agnosia (inability to recognize familiar objects). The exact role of the amygdala in human fear, however, has not been fully established (perhaps) until now.

For over two decades, researchers at the University of Iowa have been studying an extraordinary woman known only as patient SM, who acquired damage to both amygdalae (due to a rare congenital genetic condition known as Urbach-Wiethe disease). The researchers sought to examine the induction and experience of fear in SM (now a 44-year old woman) in a variety of experimental settings. Specifically, the researchers exposed SM to live snakes and spiders, took her on a tour of a haunted house, and showed her clips from several scary movies (including The Ring, Halloween, Seven, and Silence of the Lambs). SM provided her written consent to participate and the researchers took great pains to only expose SM to situations capable of inducing fear with little risk of direct harm. Additional studies were conducted utilizing self-report questionnaires (over a period of three years) and experience sampling (over three months). In experience sampling studies, SM provided input to a computerized emotional diary, in which she rated her current emotional state utilizing a set of 50 randomly presented emotional terms. The emotional terms included a wide range of both positive and negative emotional states and were derived from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule – Expanded Form (PANAS-X).

In a study published in the January 11, 2011 issue of Current Biology, the researchers report that SM did not show fear in any of the aforementioned scenarios. When taken to an exotic pet store, SM voluntarily held a large snake for three minutes even though she has often said that she “hates” them and “tries to avoid them.” She seemed fascinated with the snake and said, “this is so cool!” while holding it. SM asked the store employee 15 times if she could also hold a larger, more dangerous snake, but this was not allowed to avoid the possibility of her being harmed. SM also attempted to touch a tarantula but was stopped so that she would not be bitten. When asked why she would want to touch a dangerous snake in spite of claiming to hate snakes, SM indicated that she was overcome with “curiosity.” When taken to a Halloween haunted house at the Waverly Hills Sanatorium in Louisville, Kentucky (ranked as “one of the most haunted places in the world”), SM voluntarily led a group of five strangers through the haunted house and showed no signs of fear or hesitation. “This way guys, follow me!” she repeatedly exclaimed. Ironically, SM scared one of the monsters by poking it in the head because she was “curious.” When asked about her experience at the haunted house, SM likened it to the excitement felt while riding a roller coaster — an activity she claims to enjoy. When shown a set of 10 different fear-inducing film clips, SM showed no behavior indicative of fear. She found the fear-inducing films to be exciting and, in one case, asked the name of the movie so that she could rent it later that day. Interestingly, SM commented that most people would fear the content of the films even though she did not. Importantly, SM was also shown a number of other film clips intended to evoke disgust, anger, happiness, and surprise and, in each case, reported experiencing high levels of the respective emotions during the films. It is also worth noting that, over the past two decades, SM has consistently performed in the normal range in terms of IQ, memory, language, and perception.

In support of these behavioral observations, SM scored consistently below normal on eight well-validated self-report questionnaires intended to evaluate the level of fear a person may experience in a variety of scenarios (such as public speaking or dying). In addition, in studies of experience sampling, SM’s PANAS-X score was at the lowest possible level. SM consistently rated feeling the lowest possible levels of the following: “afraid,” “scared,” “fearful,” “nervous,” “guilty,” and “ashamed.” She also reported feeling the highest average rating for “fearless.” Importantly, for all basic emotions other than fear, SM reported experiencing them on numerous occasions to varying degrees — from “a little” to “quite a bit.”

Despite SM’s apparent deficit, she does understand what fear is and reports having felt fear on multiple occasions before the age of 10 — likely around the time that her congenital condition resulted in amygdala damage. During adulthood, SM had multiple experiences that may be considered traumatic (such as being held up at knife point and gun point and being nearly killed in an act of domestic violence) to which she responded with a marked lack of fear or urgency. It is clear that SM’s impaired ability to detect dangerous situations likely contributes greatly to her high incidence of life-threatening experiences. Regardless, SM appears unaware of her deficit and is unable to elaborate about why she is being studied (other than to indicate that the researchers studying her want to understand how her brain damage affects her behavior).

Several limitations of this study limit the conclusions that can be drawn from its findings. First, brain imaging indicates that SM’s brain damage is not entirely limited to the amydgalae and extends into nearby brain regions. Second, this study provides only preliminary evidence about whether SM’s experience of emotions other than fear is in the normal range. Third, SM is a single case and, ideally, these findings should be replicated in other similar cases.

In sum, these findings indicate that patient SM exhibits a significant deficit in the ability to experience fear across a wide variety of situations. As SM is capable of experiencing other emotions normally, she is not emotionless, but rather fearless. This case study, when coupled with data acquired in amydgala-damaged animals, indicates that the amygdala is critical for triggering the experience of fear. As indicated by the authors, SM’s unique case suggests that, without the amygdala, the evolutionary value of fear is lost.

SM’s amygdala damage appears to render her immune to the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), an intriguing hypothesis that is supported by results from recent studies in amygdala-damaged war veterans. “This finding points us to a specific brain area that might underlie PTSD,” said senior study author Daniel Tranel, Ph.D., Director of University of Iowa’s Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience. “Psychotherapy and medications are the current treatment options for PTSD and could be refined and further developed with the aim of targeting the amygdala,” said Dr. Tranel.

Ekman P, Sorenson ER, & Friesen WV (1969). Pan-cultural elements in facial displays of emotion. Science (New York, N.Y.), 164 (3875), 86-8 PMID: 5773719

Elfenbein HA, & Ambady N (2002). On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: a meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 128 (2), 203-35 PMID: 11931516

Feinstein JS, Adolphs R, Damasio A, & Tranel D (2011). The human amygdala and the induction and experience of fear. Current biology : CB, 21 (1), 34-8 PMID: 21167712

Klüver H, and Bucy PC. (1939). Preliminary analysis of functions of the temporal lobe in monkeys. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry 42: 979-1000.

Koenigs M, Huey ED, Raymont V, Cheon B, Solomon J, Wassermann EM, & Grafman J (2008). Focal brain damage protects against post-traumatic stress disorder in combat veterans. Nature neuroscience, 11 (2), 232-7 PMID: 18157125


Fuji-Q Highland’s Terrifying Haunted House Will Chill Your Spine!

Have you ever visited a haunted house or haunted hospital attraction at a theme park? Usually, you only need to spend about 15 minutes inside one of these haunted attractions to test your nerves and maybe experience a couple of jump scares. However, there is a two-storey building in Fuji-Q Highland Theme Park that is not an ordinary haunted house attraction, but the biggest and scariest haunted house in the world! Let’s find out why this famous attraction is visited by between 1000 and 1500 people per day!

Amidst the strange echoes, harrowing sudden noises, and terrifying surprises, you may need to spend about an hour to complete and find your way out of the 900-meter maze inside before falling victim to your fears. That’s sixty minutes of non-stop fear, tension, and terrifying fun! Don’t worry, though, for those who are concerned about becoming too scared out of their wits and not being able to continue. There are various pink doors dotted around the maze marked “Retire” that allow you to escape back to reality. Although it’s a scary experience, it’s supposed to be fun, and no one who really wants to leave is forced to stay.

The newly renovated attraction is called the Super Scary Labyrinth of Fear. It is also known as the Ghost House or Haunted Hospital. One of the biggest and scariest haunted houses in the world, it is located in Fuji-Q Highland Amusement Park, in Yamanashi Prefecture and near the base of Japan’s tallest mountain, Mt. Fuji, which you can see clearly from the park. This hospital-themed haunted house might be different from any other haunted house or haunted hospital you have ever visited! This scary labyrinth is 900 meters of terrifying mazes, trap rooms, and dark corners where you even have to decide your own starting route. The visitors are free to explore any part of the building. The designers of the Super Scary Labyrinth of Fear also prepared many traps and pitfalls to provide their guests with a more realistic experience of what he coined as “horror harassment.”

Reputedly, the attraction’s design was inspired by the story of a real hospital located near the foot of the Mt. Fuji. The hospital was very famous and had lots of professional doctors and great facilities. But one day, the head and staff of the hospital started to take some fresh organs from the patients who had gone there for surgery. The organs of the patients were inserted into jars of chemicals and sold to distant places while the bodies were put inside large, wooden crates. For revenge, the victims’ spirits came back and started haunting and killing the doctors. Finally, the entire hospital was abandoned. This is the urban legend that is still told among people the real people who live around there.

Featured rooms include the Quarantine Ward, the CT Scan Room, the Diagnostic Exam Room, the Third Operating Room, the New Mortuary, the Second Long Corridor, and the Bacteria Lab. Combining primal horrors like darkness and jump scares as well as deeper fears like disease and death really capture the terror and promise a thrilling experience! The ghost figures and lighting effects are well-designed to create a really scary atmosphere, and many actors with movie-standard makeup and costumes are ready to keep you up all night. Inside, you’ll find dark passages, sealed rooms from which you have to escape, and witness sounds and even smells to awaken your primal fear!

As you go through each room in the maze, whether it be the operating table, waiting rooms or X-ray rooms, you can clearly see the stolen organs in jars of chemicals and the slumped figures of the poor victims. Perhaps you will even encounter the spirits of those who have come back for vengeance. With these sights, sounds, and smells assaulting your senses, it will be difficult to remember that none of it is real and keep your cool.

To make the setting all the more scary, the haunted hospital has prepared some events you might not expect. You can expect to feel as if you are really fighting with your own fears. Did someone really whisper, or was that just a figment of your scared-to-death imagination? What is waiting around the next corner? Is there someone behind you? The attraction is more about psychological horror and the tension rather than gruesome in-your-face violence.

You will further realize that this haunted hospital forces you to wrestle with your own fears rather than be a victim of some bloody, heart-pounding action, as you enter the Room of No Escape, one of the more notable attractions. There are no doors that you can see and thus, there is no way to get out! If you’re even slightly claustrophobic, maybe it’s better to retire early as you could seriously freak yourself out wondering how long you will be confined in this dungeon. Will you be able to escape, or will you succumb to your fears?

There are some rules to abide by when you visit. First of all, you cannot enter alone, so be sure to visit as a couple or a group. Secondly, guests of elementary school age must be accompanied by an adult, and kids of pre-school age or younger are not allowed to enter at all due to the obvious nature of the attraction. You can’t use your free pass Fuji-Q Highland ticket to enter this attraction you must pat the additional entrance fee, which is 1000 yen.

For those who are unsure about visiting the Super Scary Labyrinth of Fear, don’t worry as there are many other wonderful attractions at Fuji-Q Highland. Try an exciting rollercoaster such as the high-speed Dodonpa, the gut-wrenching Eejanaika, or the incredibly high up Fujiyama. There are also Tea Cups, the Shining Flower Ferris wheel, the Red Tower, Panic Clock, and so much more! The Super Scary Labyrinth of fear, though, is not only for those looking for an adrenaline rush, but a truly terrifying experience where they can test their wits and bravery. Think carefully before you enter!

With all that said, even if you read this article and you might think it sounds like a piece of cake, then perhaps you are someone who can beat the game and escape the house in record time. But once you experience the darkness of the reality that is the Super Scary Labyrinth of Fear, you might think twice. Either way, at such a good price to get in, it’s well worth a try to test your nerve!

Besides this scary ride there are also many other fun things to do at this incredible theme park!

Thrilling Rides

Fuji-Q Highland is famous among thrill seekers, and there are plenty of great rides to keep you entertained all day. Some of the most popular ones include DODODONPA, the fastest rollercoaster in Japan, the one-of-a-kind Tentekomai spinning ride, Takabisha which has the steepest freefall drop in the world, and Eejanaika, a 𔃴th Dimension’ rollercoaster with rave reviews. Be advised that the very popular rides will usually attract very long queues, so be prepared to wait a while.

Family Attractions

If you are coming as a family or prefer rides which are a bit more gentle, be assured that there are some great options at Fuji-Q Highland to choose from. You can head to Thomas Land which consists of many different children’s rides, a 3D Theater, and a fun train.

You can also enjoy the connected Fujiyama Onsen, which is directly connected to Fuji-Q Highland and is a great place to soak, relax, and unwind! You can check out their website here (Japanese only).

There is a variety of eating options inside the park that can be enjoyed throughout the day. These include pizza, burgers, kebabs, crepes, and numerous Japanese snacks and specialties to indulge in. Why not grab a fresh pretzel at Auntie Annie’s, or visit the Food Stadium which offers udon dishes and local cuisines? There are loads of dining options to choose from so you definitely won’t get hungry!

The easiest, cheapest, and most direct way to get to Fuji-Q Highland Park is to catch the bus (Chuo Highway Bus Fujigoko Line) from Shinjuku Station. It goes to the park and takes around 1 hour 40 minutes, costing 1,750 yen each way. You can also board this bus at Mitaka (1500 yen), Fuchu (1400 yen), and Hachioji (930 yen) depending on where your house/hotel is.

There are also train services to the park, namely from Shinjuku Station via Otsuki Station. However, it takes almost three hours and costs 2,400 yen each way, so is the more pricey option!

You may have heard of the ‘QPACK’ ticket, which includes transport to and from the park from Shinjuku, and the Fuji-Q Highland ticket. It costs 7,800 yen for adults (7,400 yen for school students and 4,950 yen for kids). You can also get a QPACK pass from Shibuya, of which the ticket cost is 100 yen more than the Shinjuku price (50 yen more for kids).

Next time you visit Fuji-Q Highland theme park, definitely give the world-famous Super Scary Labyrinth of Fear a try with your friends or partner! And don’t forget that there is so much more to see in this popular theme park, too! Enjoy your visit!


[Nightmare before Christmas] All of the citizens of Halloween Town represent specific fears, and This is Halloween is them introducing themselves.

So my roommates were playing this song, and I got to thinking about the introductions in the song, and how they might be taken literally. I think that every fear is represented by a person in Halloween town, as Halloween is a holiday to celebrate our fears. The more universal, the older, and the more terrifying a fear is, the more prominent the person in the town is. The song introduces us to several of the larger fears:

The one hiding under your bed, and the one hiding under your stairs: Not as terrifying anymore, but both old and universal.

The clown with the tear-away face: More recent, but especially scary. Note: Here, I think tear-away could also just mean easily changeable. He is the shape-changing clown archetype, a la It. Very trendy.

The who in the call, "who's there", and the wind blowing through your hair: Both incredibly old.

Dr. Finklestein: I think that this character represents old age, and the changes that we fear in ourselves. Many pieces of his body are artificial, and he is isolated to his wheelchair. However, as time marches on, people live longer and old people live better. He is becoming a less powerful fear, and thusly lives in more isolation, and creates a new fear

Sally: who represents disability and injury in youth. We see her at first isolated from the world, as many with serious disabilities from a young age, and even when she goes out, she has to put herself back together.

The Mayor: a very nervous and two-faced character, he represents the fear of our friends, the fear that they may change or behave in an unexpected way, and general social anxiety. He is not a very strong fear, but a very well-connected one.

Jack represents death, the oldest and most powerful fear, and the one from which most other fears have their true source. Most things that we fear, we fear because they may kill us.

Oogie Boogie is a tricky one. He has many aspects. Of course one is the Bogey man, and very old but more vague fear, and he is also made up of bugs, spiders, and snakes. But most importantly, he is introduced in the main song as "the shadow on the moon at night, filling your dreams to the brim with fright". Oogie is the fear of the dark, and the unknown. He is the most primal fear, fear without name.

Why then is Jack the king, and not Oogie? Well you'll notice that the citizens of Halloween Town don't act like the things they are meant to be fears of. Jack isn't going around collecting souls. In fact, in the song they mention that "we aren't mean", and they all act fairly silly from time to time. This is because they arent the things, but the fears of the things. Jack isn't the Grim Reaper, he is the fear of death. And what happens after we stop being scared? Frequently, nervous laughter. Fears and humor go hand in hand, and fears are deep and complex things, making individuals with complex goals and drives.

Oogie however represents true fear, unnamed fear, and all other fears, personification of fears in general, is all done to make fear less scary. Once we can name it, we are less scared of it. Therefore, all the fears of specific things keep away from Oogie, and he wants to rule what he sees as his rightful holiday, taking any vestige of joy from it, and replacing it all with pure fear.

Presumably there are other fears in this town as well, less popular, less powerful. Perhaps fear of fish is here, or the fear of evenly-spaced organic holes (its a real thing, look it up). Perhaps even the fear of unwanted responsibilities. Maybe Lock, Stock, and Barrel are the fear of unwanted children. And of course, being children, they are the most likely to work for Oogie, as children are more ready to accept unnamed fears, having not yet segmented and personified all they are afraid of.



Contents

Film Edit

In A Nightmare on Elm Street, Freddy is introduced as a child killer from the fictitious town of Springwood, Ohio, who kills his victims with a bladed leather glove he crafted in a boiler room where he used to take his victims. He is captured, but is set free on a technicality when it is discovered that the search warrant wasn't signed in the right place. He is hunted down by a mob made up of the town's vengeful parents and cornered in a boiler room. The mob douses the building with gasoline and sets it on fire by throwing Molotov cocktails, burning him alive. While his body dies, his spirit lives on within the dreams of a group of teenagers and pre-adolescents living on Elm Street, whom he preys on by entering their dreams and killing them, fueled by the town's memories and fear of him and empowered by a trio of 'dream demons' to be their willing instrument of evil. He is apparently destroyed at the end of the film by protagonist Nancy Thompson (Heather Langenkamp), but the last scene reveals that he has survived. He goes on to antagonize the teenage protagonists of the film's sequels, including Jesse Walsh (Mark Patton), Kristen Parker (Patricia Arquette), Alice Johnson (Lisa Wilcox), and Lori Campbell (Monica Keena).

In A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors, more of Freddy's backstory is revealed by the mysterious nun who repeatedly appears to Dr. Neil Gordon (Craig Wasson). Freddy's mother, Amanda Krueger (Nan Martin), was a nurse at the asylum featured in the film. At the time she worked there, a largely abandoned, run-down wing of the asylum was used to lock up entire hordes of the most insane criminals all at once. When Amanda was young, she was accidentally locked into the room with the criminals over a holiday weekend. They managed to keep her hidden for days, raping her repeatedly. When she was finally discovered, she was barely alive and pregnant, with the result that Krueger was regarded as "the son of a hundred homicidal maniacs" due to it being impossible to determine which of the rapists was his biological father. However, in A Nightmare on Elm Street 5: The Dream Child, it is implied that Freddy had identified which one of them was his birth father (also portrayed by Englund in a dream sequence), and hates his mother for rejecting him. Later, in Freddy's Dead: The Final Nightmare, it is revealed that he was adopted by an alcoholic named Mr. Underwood (Alice Cooper) who abused him throughout his childhood until Freddy finally murdered him as a teenager. Freddy tortures animals and engages in self-mutilation, and becomes a serial killer by murdering the children of people who had bullied him when he was a child. Prior to his murder, he is married to a woman named Loretta (Lindsey Fields), whom he eventually murders. He also has a daughter, Katherine (Lisa Zane), who seeks to end her father's horrific legacy once and for all, killing him at the end of the movie.

After a hiatus following the release of The Final Nightmare, Krueger was brought back in Wes Craven's New Nightmare by Wes Craven, who had not worked on the film series since the third film, Dream Warriors. New Nightmare coincides with the approaching anniversary of the release of the first film. Robert Englund, who portrayed Krueger throughout the film series and its television spin-off, also took the role as a fictional version of himself in New Nightmare it is implied that Englund was stalked by his character, who is an ancient demonic entity that took on the form of Wes Craven's creation, and has come to life from the film franchise's fictitious world. Having been in various manifestations throughout the ages due to the entity can be captured through storytelling, it is hinted that it was once in the form of the old witch from Brothers Grimm's fairy tale Hansel and Gretel when it was held prisoner in this allegory. Englund describes to his former co-star and friend Heather Langenkamp that this embodiment of Freddy is darker and more evil than as portrayed by him in the films he struggles to keep his sanity intact from Krueger's torments and goes into hiding with his family. Krueger aims to stop another film of the franchise from being made, eliminating the films' crew members including Langenkamp's husband Chase Porter (David Newsom) after stealing a prototype bladed glove from him, and causes nightmares and makes threatening phone calls to producer Robert Shaye. The entity also haunts Wes Craven's dreams, to the point that he sees future events related to Krueger's actions and then writes them down as a movie script. Krueger sees Langenkamp as his primary foe because her character Nancy Thompson was the first to defeat him. Krueger's attempts to cross over to reality cause a series of earthquakes throughout Los Angeles County, including the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Langenkamp, with help from her son Dylan (Miko Hughes), succeeds in defeating the entity and apparently destroys him however, Krueger's creator reveals that it is again imprisoned in the fictitious world, indicated by the character's later appearances in films and other medias.

In 2003, Freddy battled fellow horror icon Jason Voorhees (Ken Kirzinger) from the Friday the 13th film series in the theatrical release Freddy vs. Jason, a film which officially resurrected both characters from their respective deaths and subsequently sent them to Hell. As the film begins, Krueger is frustrated at his current inability to kill as knowledge of him has been hidden on Elm Street, prompting him to manipulate Jason into killing in his place in the hope that the resulting fear will remind others of him so that he can resume his own murder spree. However, Freddy's plan proves too effective when Jason starts killing people before Freddy can do it, culminating in a group of teens learning the truth and drawing Freddy and Jason to Crystal Lake in the hope that they can draw Freddy into the real world so that Jason will kill him and remain "home". The ending of the film is left ambiguous as to whether or not Freddy is actually dead despite being decapitated, when Jason emerges from Crystal Lake carrying his head the head looks back and winks at the viewers. A sequel featuring Ash Williams (Bruce Campbell) from the Evil Dead franchise was planned, but never materialised onscreen. It was later turned into Dynamite Entertainment's comic book series Freddy vs. Jason vs. Ash.

In the 2010 remake of the original film, Freddy's backstory is that he was a groundskeeper at Badham Preschool who tortured and sexually abused the teenage protagonists of the film when they were children. When their parents found out, they trapped him in a boiler room at an industrial park and set it on fire with a Molotov cocktail made out of a gasoline canister, killing him. As a spirit, he takes his revenge on the teenagers by haunting their dreams he is particularly obsessed with Nancy Holbrook (Rooney Mara), who had been his “favorite” when she was a child. Krueger's power comes from his prey's memories and emotions upon remembering the abuse they suffered at his hands. His bladed glove is made out of discarded pieces of his gardening tools. Nancy destroys him at the end of the film by pulling his spirit into the physical world and cutting his throat the final scene reveals that Freddy's spirit has survived, however.

Television Edit

Robert Englund continued his role as Krueger on October 9, 1988, in the television anthology series, Freddy's Nightmares. The show was hosted by Freddy, who did not take direct part in most of the episodes, but he did show up occasionally to influence the plot of particular episodes. Further, a consistent theme in each episode was characters having disturbing dreams. The series ran for 44 episodes over two seasons, ending on March 10, 1990. [10] Although a bulk of the episodes did not feature Freddy taking a major role in the plot, the pilot episode, "No More, Mr. Nice Guy", depicts the events of his trial, and his subsequent death at the hands of the parents of Elm Street after his acquittal. In "No More, Mr. Nice Guy", though Freddy's case seems open and shut, a mistrial is declared based on the arresting officer, Lt. Tim Blocker (Ian Patrick Williams), not reading Krueger his Miranda rights, which is different from the original Nightmare that stated he was released because someone forgot to sign the search warrant in the right place. The episode also reveals that Krueger used an ice cream van to lure children close enough so that he could kidnap and kill them. After the town's parents burn Freddy to death he returns to haunt Blocker in his dreams. Freddy gets his revenge when Blocker is put under anesthesia at the dentist's office, and Freddy shows up and kills him. [11] The episode "Sister's Keeper" was a "sequel" to this episode, even though it was the seventh episode of the series. [12] The episode follows Krueger as he terrorizes Blocker's identical twin daughters and frames one sister for the other's murder. [11] Season two's "It's My Party And You'll Die If I Want You To" featured Freddy attacking a high school prom date who stood him up 20 years earlier. He gets his revenge with his desire being fulfilled in the process. [13]

Wes Craven said his inspiration for the basis of Freddy Krueger's power stemmed from several stories in the Los Angeles Times about a series of mysterious deaths: All the victims had reported recurring nightmares and died in their sleep. [14] Additionally, Craven's original script characterized Freddy as a child molester, which Craven said was the "worst thing" he could think of. The decision was made to instead make him a child murderer in order to avoid being accused of exploiting the spate of highly publicized child molestation cases in California around the time A Nightmare on Elm Street went into production. [15] Craven's inspirations for the character included a bully from his school during his youth, a disfigured homeless man who had frightened him when he was 11, and the 1970s pop song "Dream Weaver" by Gary Wright. In an interview, he said of the disfigured stranger, "When I looked down there was a man very much like Freddy walking along the sidewalk. He must have sensed that someone was looking at him and stopped and looked right into my face. He scared the living daylights out of me, so I jumped back into the shadows. I waited and waited to hear him walk away. Finally I thought he must have gone, so I stepped back to the window. The guy was not only still looking at me but he thrust his head forward as if to say, 'Yes, I'm still looking at you.' The man walked towards the apartment building's entrance. I ran through the apartment to our front door as he was walking into our building on the lower floor. I heard him starting up the stairs. My brother, who is ten years older than me, got a baseball bat and went out to the corridor but he was gone." [16]

In Wes Craven's New Nightmare, Freddy is characterized as a symbol of something powerful and ancient, and is given more stature and muscles. [17] Unlike the six movies before it, New Nightmare shows Freddy as closer to what Wes Craven originally intended, toning down his comedic side while strengthening the more menacing aspects of his character.

Throughout the series, Freddy's potential victims often experience dreams of young children, jumping rope and chanting a rhyme to the tune of "One, Two, Buckle My Shoe" with the lyrics changed to "One, Two, Freddy's coming for you", often as an omen to Freddy's presence or a precursor to his attacks.

In the 2010 remake of A Nightmare on Elm Street, Jackie Earle Haley portrayed Freddy Krueger. In the film, Krueger is depicted as a sadistic pedophile who worked as a gardener at a local preschool. Unlike in the original version of events, where he was a known child-killer who evaded conviction on a technicality, in this version of events there was actually ambiguity about Krueger's guilt or innocence apart from the testimony of his victims, until the now-grown survivors find the room where Krueger molested them while searching for evidence.

Appearance Edit

According to Robert Englund, Freddy's look was based on Klaus Kinski's portrayal of Count Dracula in Nosferatu the Vampyre (1979) and some of the works of Lon Chaney, while he based Freddy's poise and gait on the "Cagney stance" originated by actor James Cagney. Freddy's characteristic of keeping his gloved arm lower than the other was incidental due to the knives being heavy to wear for Englund and forcing him to carry himself as such while playing the role. [18] Freddy's physical appearance has stayed largely consistent throughout the film series, although small changes were made in subsequent films. He wears a striped red-and-green sweater (solid red sleeves in the original film), a dark brown fedora, his bladed glove, loose black trousers (brown in the original film), and worn work boots, in keeping with his blue collar background. His skin is scarred and burned as a result of being burned alive by the parents of Springwood, and he has no hair at all on his head as it presumably all burned off. In the original film, only Freddy's face was burned, while the scars have spread to the rest of his body from the second film onwards. His blood is occasionally a dark, oily color, or greenish in hue when he is in the Dreamworld. In the original film, Freddy remains in the shadows and under lower light much longer than he does in the later pictures. In the second film, there are some scenes where Freddy is shown without his bladed glove, and instead with the blades protruding from the tips of his fingers. As the films began to emphasize the comedic, wise-cracking aspect of the character, he began to don various costumes and take on other forms, such as dressing as a waiter or wearing a Superman-inspired version of his sweater with a cape (The Dream Child), appearing as a video game sprite (Freddy's Dead), a giant snake-like creature (Dream Warriors), and a hookah-smoking caterpillar (Freddy vs. Jason).

In New Nightmare, Freddy's appearance is updated considerably, giving him a green fedora that matched his sweater stripes, skin-tight leather pants, knee-high black boots, a turtleneck version of his trademark sweater, a blue-black trench coat, and a fifth claw on his glove, which also has a far more organic appearance, resembling the exposed muscle tissue of an actual hand. Freddy also has fewer burns on his face, though these are more severe, with his muscle tissue exposed in numerous places. Compared to his other incarnations, these Freddy's injuries are more like those of an actual burn victim. For the 2010 remake, Freddy is returned to his iconic attire, but the burns on his face are intensified with further bleaching of the skin and exposed facial tissue on the left cheek, more reminiscent of actual third-degree burns than in the original series.

Bladed glove Edit

Wes Craven stated that part of the inspiration for Freddy's infamous bladed glove was from his cat, as he watched it claw the side of his couch one night. [19]

In an interview he said, "Part of it was an objective goal to make the character memorable, since it seems that every character that has been successful has had some kind of unique weapon, whether it be a chain saw or a machete, etc. I was also looking for a primal fear which is embedded in the subconscious of people of all cultures. One of those is the fear of teeth being broken, which I used in my first film. Another is the claw of an animal, like a saber-toothed tiger reaching with its tremendous hooks. I transposed this into a human hand. The original script had the blades being fishing knives." [20]

When Jim Doyle, the creator of Freddy's claw, asked Craven what he wanted, Craven responded, "It's kind of like really long fingernails, I want the glove to look like something that someone could make who has the skills of a boilermaker." [19] Doyle explained, "Then we hunted around for knives. We picked out this bizarre-looking steak knife, we thought that this looked really cool, we thought it would look even cooler if we turned it over and used it upside down. We had to remove the back edge and put another edge on it, because we were actually using the knife upside down." Later Doyle had three duplicates of the glove made, two of which were used as stunt gloves in long shots. [19]

For New Nightmare, Lou Carlucci, the effects coordinator, remodeled Freddy's glove for a more "organic look". He says, "I did the original glove on the first Nightmare and we deliberately made that rough and primitive looking, like something that would be constructed in somebody's home workshop. Since this is supposed to be a new look for Freddy, Craven and everybody involved decided that the glove should be different. This hand has more muscle and bone texture to it, the blades are shinier and in one case, are retractable. Everything about this glove has a much cleaner look to it, it's more a natural part of his hand than a glove." The new glove has five claws. [ citation needed ]

In the 2010 remake, the glove is redesigned as a metal gauntlet with four finger bars, but it is patterned after its original design. Owing to this iteration of the character's origin as a groundskeeper, from the outset it was a gardener's glove modified as an instrument of torture, and in film its blades was based on a garden fork.

Freddy's glove appeared in the 1987 horror-comedy Evil Dead II above the door on the inside of a toolshed. This was Sam Raimi's response to Wes Craven showing footage of The Evil Dead in A Nightmare on Elm Street, which was a response to Raimi putting a poster of Craven's 1977 film The Hills Have Eyes in The Evil Dead. This, in turn, was a response to a ripped-up Jaws poster in The Hills Have Eyes. [21] The glove also appears in the 1998 horror-comedy Bride of Chucky in an evidence locker room that also contains the remains of the film's villain Chucky, the chainsaw of Leatherface from The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, and the masks of Michael Myers from Halloween and Jason Voorhees from Friday the 13th.

At the end of the film Jason Goes to Hell: The Final Friday, the mask of the title character, Jason Voorhees, played by Kane Hodder, is dragged under the earth by Freddy's gloved hand. Freddy's gloved hand, in the ending, was played by Hodder. [22]

Amusement parks Edit

At Six Flags St. Louis' Fright Fest event (then known as Fright Nights), Krueger was the main character for the event's first year in 1988. He reappeared in his own haunted house, Freddy's Nightmare: The Haunted House on Elm Street, for the following two years. Freddy Krueger appeared alongside Jason Voorhees and Leatherface as minor icons during Halloween Horror Nights 17 and again with Jason during Halloween Horror Nights 25 at Universal Orlando Resort and Universal Studios Hollywood. In 2016, Freddy Krueger returned to Halloween Horror Nights, along with Jason, in Hollywood.

Miscellaneous Edit

Freddy Krueger made different appearances in Robot Chicken voiced by Seth Green. In the episode "That Hurts Me", Freddy appears as a housemate of "Horror Movie Big Brother", alongside other famous slasher movie killers such as Michael Myers, Jason Voorhees, Leatherface, Pinhead and Ghostface. [23]

Freddy's first video game appearance was in the 1989 NES game A Nightmare on Elm Street. [24] The game was published by LJN Toys and developed by Rare. Freddy Krueger appeared as a downloadable playable character for Mortal Kombat (2011), with Robert Englund reprising his role. [25] [26] He has become the second non-Mortal Kombat character to appear in the game. The game depicts Krueger as a malevolent spirit inhabiting the Dream Realm who attacks Shao Kahn for "stealing" the souls of his potential victims. During the fight, he is pulled into the game's fictional depiction of the real world. The injured Krueger arms himself with two razor claws to continue to battle Kahn. Upon defeating him, Krueger is sent back to the Dream Realm by Nightwolf, where he continues to haunt the dreams of his human prey. [27] In an interview with PlayStation.Blog, Mortal Kombat co-creator Ed Boon cited the character's violent nature and iconic status as reasoning for the inclusion in the game, "Over the years, we've certainly had a number of conversations about guest characters. At one point, we had a conversation about having a group—imagine Freddy, Jason, Michael Myers, Leatherface from Texas Chain Saw Massacre. We never got a grip on how we would do it, whether they'd be DLC characters or what. We also wanted to introduce a character who was unexpected. This DLC thing opens the doors to realising these ideas." [28] Krueger went on to become playable in the mobile edition of the game's sequel, Mortal Kombat X, alongside Jason from Friday the 13th. [29]

In October 2017, Krueger was released as a downloadable playable character in the seventh chapter of the asymmetric survival horror game Dead by Daylight, alongside Quentin Smith. [30] The events of the chapter are set immediately following Nancy Holbrook's escape from Krueger, after which he targets Quentin Smith as revenge for aiding her. Invading Smith's dreams, he forces him to go to the Badham Preschool, where the two are unwittingly taken to the universe of Dead by Daylight by an unseen force. [31]

The character returned to television in an episode of The Goldbergs titled "Mister Knifey-Hands" with Englund reprising his role in a cameo. [32] Freddy Krueger appears as an OASIS avatar in Ready Player One. [33] He is among the avatars seen on the PVP location Planet Doom where he is shot by Aech. [ citation needed ]

The frog species Lepidobatrachus laevis had been given multiple nicknames, one of which is the "Freddy Krueger frog" for its aggressive nature. [34]


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