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History of O-12 SS-73 - History

History of O-12 SS-73 - History


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O-12 SS-73

0-l2
(SS-73: dp. 491 (surf.), 566 (subm.), 1. 175' b. 16'7", dr. 13'11"; s. 14 k. (surf.), 11 k. (subm.), cpi. 29, a. 1 3", 4 18" tt. cl. 0-11).

0-12 (SS-73) was laid down 6 March 1916 by the Lake Torpedo Boat Co., Bridgeport, Conn.; launched 29 September 1917; sponsored by Mrs. Homer S. Cummings, and commissioned 18 October 1918, Lt. Comdr. J. E. Austin in command.

Submarine 0-12 spent much of her career as a unit of submarine Division 1, based at Coco Solo, Panama Canal Zone. In 1921 she was awarded a Battle Efficiency Pennant and trophy for gunnery (gun and torpedo). She decommissioned 17 June 1924 and was placed in reserve at the Philadephia Navy Yard.

Struck from the Naval Register 29 July 1930, she transferred to the United States Shipping Board for conversion by the Philadelphia Navy Yard for use on the Sir Hubert Wilkins Arctic Expedition of geophysical investigation.

After use by Lake and Dannenhower, Inc. of Bridgeport, Conn. for the Wilkins-Ellsworth Artic Expedition, during which the submarine bore the name "Nautilus," 0-12 was returned to the Navy Department. She was sunk 20 November 1931 in a Norwegian fjord.


Chevrolet El Camino

The Chevrolet El Camino is a pickup / coupé utility vehicle that was produced by Chevrolet between 1959–60 and 1964–1987. Unlike a standard pickup truck, the El Camino was adapted from the standard two-door Chevrolet station wagon platform and integrated the cab and cargo bed into the body.

Introduced in the 1959 model year in response to the success of the Ford Ranchero pickup, its first run, based on the Biscayne's B-body, lasted only two years. Production resumed for the 1964–1977 model years based on the Chevelle platform, and continued for the 1978–1987 model years based on the GM G-body platform.

Although based on corresponding General Motors car lines, the vehicle is classified in the United States as a pickup. [1] GMC's badge engineered El Camino variant, the Sprint, was introduced for the 1971 model year. Renamed Caballero in 1978, it was also produced through the 1987 model year.


Blasts from the Past: American Gun Company 12-Gauge Shotgun

From Henry

An American Gun Company 12-gauge shotgun From Henry

Some Blast from the Past entries are not so much entries as they are cries for help. Today we have one such example.

Henry writes: “Here is my American Gun Co. 12 gauge shotgun. It has 2 ¾-inch chambers, and cylinder chokes, I think. I would appreciate any information you may have.”

This one is a Crescent Arms Model O. It might actually have 2 ½-inch chambers a lot of these guns did. “American Gun Company” was a name used by Crescent Arms of Norwich, Conn., on its trade brand name guns, which were produced for many different retailers (as in somewhere from 175 to 450 depending on which expert you believe) under many names from 1888 to 1931. Crescent would produce orders for as few as 12 guns, apparently, if the customer would pay for a die to have its business name stamped on the receiver. Otherwise, you could order guns marked “American Gun Company” until shortly after WWI, at which point they were stamped “Crescent Arms.” Unfortunately, Crescent’s records were a victim of the war effort, having been donated to a paper drive sometime during World War II.

Wholesaler/Distributor H&D Folsom bought Crescent in 1892, and owned it until 1931. During that time the company produced about 2 million guns, including 630,000 of the Model O hammer doubles like Henry’s. The hammer guns were made from 1897 to 1931. A few of the earliest ones had twist barrels, but most were made of fluid steel. The company was acquired by Savage/Stevens and eventually dissolved.

Guns marked as made by American Gun Company were produced until shortly after World War I. From Henry

Crescent Arms guns were solid, but very cheap. Perhaps to reassure a skeptical buying public, the company adopted one of the least catchy, most tepid slogans ever, from 1918 to 1931: “ Crescent Guns are Good Guns.”


NavWeaps Forums

1863 – NELLIE MOORE was a Union stern wheel paddle steamer of 226 tons built in 1863 at Cincinnati. She ran aground at Cumberland Island, Kentucky and was lost.

1864 - FRANCIS SKIDDY was a Union side-wheel steamer of 1183 tons, built in 1851 at New York City. She was wrecked on a ledge 4 miles south of Albany on the Hudson River, near Staats Landing (Staat's Dock). The engine was removed and put in new steamer DEAN RICHMOND.

1924 - The incomplete USS WASHINGTON (BB-47) was towed some 60 miles off Virginia to be used as a gunnery target.
On the first day of testing, the ship was hit by two 400-pound torpedoes and three 1-ton near-miss bombs with minor damage and a list of three degrees. On that day, the ship had 400 pounds of TNT detonated onboard, but she remained afloat. Two days later, the ship was hit by fourteen 14 in shells dropped from 4,000 feet, but only one penetrated. The ship was finally sunk by USS TEXAS (BB-35) and USS NEW YORK (BB-34) with 14-in shells. After the test, it was decided that the existing deck armor on battleships was inadequate, and that future battleships should be fitted with triple bottoms.

Nov 25, 2018 #1282 2018-11-25T23:46

1861 - ARCADE was a Union schooner with a cargo of staves en route from Portland, Maine for Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadalupe to exchange for rum & sugar. She was captured and burned by steamer CSS SUMTER.

1863 - Confederate schooner MARY ANN, on voyage from Calcasieu Parish, LA. to Tampico, Mexico, with a cargo of cotton and leaking badly, was captured by gunboat USS ANTONA and destroyed after seizing her cargo.

1945 - "TACOMA, Wash., Nov. 26 (UP) - Coast Guard aircraft and small Navy boats tonight began a search of the ocean off Florence, Ore., for six crewmen who parachuted during a gale from a C-46 transport plane enroute from California to McChord field, Wash."

1958 – At Chennault AFB, near Lake Charles, Louisiana, a B-47 loaded with a sealed-pit nuclear weapon containing no plutonium and some tritium caught fire on the ground after the accidental discharge of assisted take-off (ATO) bottles during the pilot's acceptance check. Discharge of the JATO units propelled the aircraft off the runway, where it collided with a towing vehicle and caught fire. The nuclear weapon case and all other components, with the exception of a few small pieces of high explosives, were destroyed by the fire however, even in spite of one minor explosion, the secondary remained intact and the tritium reservoir was recovered. Contamination was limited to the immediate vicinity of the weapon residue within the aircraft wreckage.

2004 - United States Marine Corps Bell-Boeing MV-22B Osprey, BuNo 165838, loses a 20 × 4 inch piece of a prop-rotor blade during test flight in Nova Scotia, Canada, but is able to make safe precautionary landing at CFB Shearwater despite severe airframe vibration. The blade failed after apparently being hit by ice which broke off from another part of the aircraft.

Nov 27, 2018 #1283 2018-11-27T04:24

1862 – LONE STAR was a Union steamer carrying a cargo of sugar and 2 passengers when she was captured by Confederates below Plaquemine, LA. They brought the vessel 10 miles down the Mississippi River to a bluff where it was burned.

1864 – USS GREYHOUND was a Union side-wheel steamer, built in 1863 in England and used during the civil war as Gen. Benjamin Butler's headquarters. GREYHOUND, while steaming 5 or 6 miles upstream the James River from Bermuda Hundred, VA., was blown up by a Confederate bomb disguised as a lump of coal (aka 'coal torpedo') in the coal bunkers. She was beached and there were no human casualties, but Butler lost his horses and GREYHOUND was totally destroyed.

1942 - Douglas O-46A, 35–179, of the 81st Air Base Squadron, piloted by Gordon H. Fleisch, lands downwind at Brooks Field, Harlingen, Texas, runs out of runway, overturns. Written off, it is abandoned in place. More than twenty years later it is discovered by the Antique Airplane Association with trees growing through its wings, and in 1967 it is rescued and hauled to Ottumwa, Iowa.
Restoration turns out to beyond the organization's capability, and in September 1970 it is traded to the National Museum of the United States Air Force for a flyable C-47. The (then) Air Force Museum has it restored at Purdue University and places it on display in 1974, the sole survivor of the 91 O-46s built.

1944 - During a 3,000-mile out-and-back navigation training mission from Great Bend Army Airfield, (now Great Bend Municipal Airport) Kansas, to Batista Army Airfield, (now San Antonio de los Baños Airfield) Cuba, Boeing B-29-25-BW Superfortress, 42-24447, coded '35', of the 28th Bombardment Squadron (Very Heavy), 19th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy), suffers fire in number 1 (port outer) engine. Aircraft commander, 1st Lt. Eugene Hammond, orders crew bail-out 37 miles S of Biloxi, Mississippi. After all but the pilot have departed, the burning engine nacelle drops off of the wing, Lt. Hammond returns to controls, brings the bomber into Keesler Field, Mississippi for emergency landing. Only four recovered from the Gulf of Mexico, one dead, three injured.

1945 - Douglas C-47B-1-DL Skytrain, 43-16261, c/n 20727, of Air Transport Command, piloted by 1st Lt. William H. Myers, disappears during flight from Singapore to Butterworth, British Malaya. Wreckage found on mountain slope in the forest reserve area of Bukit Bubu, near Beruas, Perak, Malaysia. Crew remains recovered in August 2015. Also killed were Flight Officer Judson Baskett and PFC Donald Jones.

1963 – Test pilot Milton Thompson flew the X-15 to 27,371 meters (89,804 feet) and Mach 4.94.

1964 - A Lockheed SP-2H Neptune, BuNo 135610, coded "YC 12", of VP-2, out of NAS Kodiak, crashes into a mountain near the tip of Cape Newenham, Alaska. Twelve crew members killed.

1987 – Former USCG Bibb (WPG-31) was sunk as an artificial reef just outside the coral reef tract, about six miles (10 km) southeast of Key Largo, FL.

1987 – Former USCG Duane (WPG-33) was sunk as an artificial reef located a mile south of Molasses Reef, FL., some 0.4 miles south southwest of the USCG Bibb wreck.

Nov 28, 2018 #1284 2018-11-28T03:01

1864 – Sloop-of-war CSS FLORIDA was allegedly sunk in an accidental ramming with US Army Transport ALLIANCE. In reality, she was scuttled off Thorofore Island, Newport News, VA.

1864 - CHARLIE POTWAN was a Union stern-wheel steamer of 52 tons, built at Zanesville, Ohio. En route from Coalport for Ashland, Ky., swells from the Diamond and Coal Hill caused the vessel to fill and turn over at Eight Mile Island above Point Pleasant, WV. The cabin separated from the hull and floated downstream. There was no loss of life. The vessel was carrying a cargo of slack coal.

1864 - DOANE (DOAN NO.2) was a Union stern wheel paddle steamer built in 1863 at Cincinnati. She ran aground and broke in two parts sinking in 6 feet of water about 20 miles above Dardanelle, AR. and 18 miles East of Clarksville, AR. Vessel’s cargo was saved.

1941 - First prototype Grumman XTBF-1 Avenger, BuNo 2539, suffers fire in bomb bay during test flight out of Long Island, New York factory airfield, forcing pilot Hobart Cook and engineer Gordon Israel to bail out. (Joe Mizrahi source cites date of accident as 28 August 1941.)

1947 - A USAF Douglas C-47B-6-DK, 43-48736, c/n 14552/25997, of the 15th Troop Carrier Squadron, 61st Troop Carrier Group, piloted by Wesley B. Fleming, en route from Pisa to Frankfurt-Rhein-Main AFB, thirty miles off-course, crashes in the Italian Alps near Trappa, Italy. All five crew and 15 passengers KWF. Futile search involving hundreds of aircraft from several countries is given up on 11 December. Wreckage discovered eight months later.

1953 - The first aircraft accident since arrival of the 463d Troop Carrier Wing at Ardmore Air Force Base, Oklahoma, occurred early Saturday morning, this date. Captain Francis N. Satterlee, Public Information Officer, and three passengers received various minor injuries as Beechcraft AT-11, 42-36830, went out of control as it became airborne, crashing 75 yards off the runway. "Captain Satterlee, pilot, was the most seriously injured of those aboard, receiving a compound fracture of the left leg below the knee plus lacerations of the right leg, right arm and face. The passengers included Lt. James R. Quiggle of the base legal department A2/c Carl L. Taylor, crew chief of the aircraft, Headquarters Squadron, 463rd Air Base Group and Pvt. James R. Carver, U. S. Army, stationed at Ft. Lewis, Washington.
The aircraft was headed for Fort Sill, Lawton, Oklahoma. Pvt. Carver, on leave at Ardmore, his hometown, was hoping to catch a military aircraft flight from Lawton to McChord Air Force Base, a short distance north of Ft. Lewis. Lt. Quiggle, Airman Taylor and Pvt. Carver received minor injuries not requiring hospitalization and received first aid at the base hospital. It was not in full operation at the time and Satterlee, with serious injuries, was transported to the Ardmore Sanitarium and Hospital where he stayed until he returned to duty."

1957 - Lockheed U-2A, 56-6704, Article 371, eleventh airframe of first USAF order, delivered April 1957, moved to 4080th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, Laughlin AFB, Texas, June 1957, crashes at night this date. Capt. Benny Lacombe killed when he unsuccessfully attempts to bail out of crippled aircraft 13 miles SE of Laughlin. Ejection seats had not yet been fitted to U-2s at this point.

Nov 29, 2018 #1285 2018-11-29T02:11

1944 - Douglas A-26 Invader, A-26B-10-DT 43-22298 and A-26B-15-DT 43-22336 both of 641st Squadron USAF collided during formation after take-off from Warton Aerodrome, Lancashire. All crew were killed. Both aircraft remained on Freckleton Marsh and were partially recovered as part of a UK Channel 4 Time Team Programme in 2005.

1952 - A Civil Air Transport C-47 flying from Seoul, South Korea, on a mission to pick up agent Li Chun-ying, was shot down in Jilin province, People's Republic of China. CAT pilots Robert Snoddy and Norman Schwartz were killed. CIA agents Richard Fectau and John Downey were captured and held in China until December 12, 1971 and March 12, 1973, respectively. In July 2002, the Chinese government allowed a US government team to search for Snoddy and Schwartz's bodies. This expedition brought back sufficient airplane remains to prompt a more in-depth archaeological dig in July 2004.

1966 – Test pilot Mike Adams flew the X-15 to 28,042 meters (92,005 feet) and Mach 4.65.

1982 - Shortly after completing a training mission, a USAF Boeing B-52G Stratofortress, 59-4766, suffered hydraulics fire in nose gear, exploded at the end of the runway at Castle AFB, California, but crew of nine escaped before it was fully engulfed. Aircraft commander ordered evacuation as soon as he learned of the wheel fire.

1984 – Former USCG George W. Campbell (WPG-32) was sunk as a target with a Harpoon missile some 52 miles NW of Kauai, Hawaii.

2004 - A U.S. Army Sikorsky UH-60L Black Hawk, crashes shortly after taking off from Fort Hood, Texas, when it strikes guy-wires supporting the television antenna of KSWO-TV, near Waco, Texas, killing all seven soldiers aboard. Conditions were foggy and the warning lights on the tower were not lit, in violation of both Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) regulations. Victims included Brigadier General Charles B. Allen of Lawton, Oklahoma Specialist Richard L. Brown of Stonewall, Louisiana Chief Warrant Officer Todd T. Christmas of Wagon Mound, New Mexico Chief Warrant Officer Doug Clapp of Greensboro, North Carolina Chief Warrant Officer Mark W. Evans of Killeen, Texas Chief Warrant Officer David H. Garner of Mason City, Iowa and Colonel James M. Moore of Peabody, Massachusetts.

Nov 30, 2018 #1286 2018-11-30T02:19

1861 - NORMAN was a Union schooner that was lost on Block Island, R.I., while carrying coal.

1861 - Confederate schooner E. J. WATERMAN, while carrying a cargo of coffee, ran aground on Tybee Island, Georgia, and was captured by the sloop-of-war USS SAVANNAH.

1862 - The 136-ton Union bark PARKER COOK, while carrying a cargo of pork, beef, butter, cheese, and bread to Aux Cayes Haiti, was captured and burned off Cape Rafael, Santo Domingo, by the screw sloop-of-war CSS ALABAMA.

1931 – Former USS NAUTILUS, (ex-O-12 (SS-73)) was towed three miles down the Byfjorden (a Norwegian fjord just outside Bergen) and scuttled in 1,138 feet (347 m) of water. In 1981 Norwegian divers found her wreck. Another source sets the date as 20 November.

1944 - Two B-24 Liberator bombers, flying out of Davis-Monthan Army Air Base, collide at 0740 hrs. over the desert NE of Tucson, Arizona. The planes were on a training mission and all eighteen airmen died. The location of this crash was over a major natural drainage canal known as the Pantano Wash, at a point half-way between present day East Broadway and East Speedway. Aircraft involved were both B-24J-35-CO Liberators, 42-73344 and 42-73357, of the 233d Combat Crew Training Squadron. Harold D. Ballard piloted 344, while 357 was flown by Theodore V. Glock.

1947 - TOKYO, Dec. 1. (AP) - The wreckage of a plane believed to be an air transport command C-47 missing with two aboard since Sunday morning has been located 5000 feet up the snowclad slopes of Mount Fuji, the First cavalry division said today. The missing plane, carrying only a pilot and copilot, left Haneda airfield near Tokyo on a flight to Itami airbase near Osaka. The United States Far East air force said no radio contact was established with the plane after its takeoff."

1953 - A USAF C-119 Flying Boxcar crashes in flames while on approach to Orly Airport, Paris, France, killing all six crew. "French officials said the plane appeared to explode in air moments after it had been given a clearance for its approach to the field. They said [that] six bodies had been recovered from the wreckage. Air Force sources said the plane was manned by a ferry crew from Dover Field, Del. The bodies of five men were pulled from the charred wreckage. A sixth crewmen was found dead in a clump of trees after he had tried unsuccessfully to bail out from about 700 feet. His partially-opened parachute was tangled in branches 40 yards from the crash site."

1953 - USAF Lt. Ben E. Short, of Fontana, California, steps out of his burning North American F-86D-35-NA Sabre, 51-6172, and parachutes safely near Courtland, California, while on a flight out of Hamilton AFB, California. The burning plane lands in a field near Dixon, 20 miles from where the pilot descends. "Short, who was uninjured, telephoned his base from a farm house and was returned to Hamilton Field by helicopter an hour later." The accident occurred at 1000 hrs. A helicopter of the 41st Air Rescue Squadron flew him back to base. His F-86 crashed 35 miles E of Travis AFB.

1960 – In his first familiarization flight, test pilot Neil Armstrong flew the X-15 to 14,886 meters (48,840 feet) and Mach 1.75.

1964 – Test pilot John McKay flew the X-15 to 26,579 meters (87,206 feet) and Mach 4.66.

1967 – Former USS NEUENDORF (DE-200) was sunk as a target off California.

1989 - A Douglas A-4F Skyhawk—Bureau Number 152101, tail number '2101', c/n 13489, assigned to the US Navy Top Gun school, crashed short of the runway at NAS Miramar, north of San Diego, California. The cause of the crash was loss of power to the engine. The pilot, Lt. Cmdr. Stanley R. O'Connor, an instructor in the Top Gun school, ejected safely. This airframe had been ordered as the final A-4E but was delivered as the first A-4F model.

1991 - During routine training mission, pilot Lt. Michael Young, 28, bailed out of his disabled USAF LTV A-7D-9-CV Corsair II 70-1054 of the 180th Tactical Fighter Group, Ohio Air National Guard, based at Toledo Express Airport, Swanton, Ohio, over the coast of Michigan's Thumb area. He landed in Lake Huron and was dragged 12 miles in his parachute by winds before being lost and presumed drowned. The jet impacted in a wooded area near Port Hope, Michigan. Rescuers were unable to reach pilot at the speed he was being dragged, and survival was unlikely in the 38-degree water.

1992 - On 29 November 1992, four Lockheed C-141 Starlifters, of the 62d Airlift Wing, deployed from McChord AFB, Washington, to Malmstrom AFB, Montana, to take part in what was supposed to be a routine local air refueling/airdrop mission, with a KC-135 Stratotanker of the 141st Air Refueling Wing, Washington Air National Guard, out of Fairchild AFB, Washington. Two Starlifters collided over Harlem, in north central Montana, at 2020 hrs., this date, while involved in a refueling training exercise at between 24,000 and 27,000 feet, killing all 13 aboard the two jets, said Mike O'Connor of the Federal Aviation Administration. C-141Bs 65-0255 and 66-0142 came down a mile apart. Wreckage was scattered over 16 square miles 12 miles north of Harlem, a town of 1,100 near the Canada–US border. There were six people on one of the aircraft and seven on the other. Eleven of the men were from the 36th Airlift Squadron, one from the 8th Airlift Squadron, and one from the 4th Airlift Squadron. Neither aircraft was carrying any cargo on the training mission, indications they had finished part of the refueling and one of the aircraft was moving back into formation when the collision occurred.

1992 - Rockwell B-1B Lancer, 86-0106, "Lone Wolf", of 337th Bomb Squadron, 96th Bomb Wing, flies into a mountain, 300 feet below a 6,500-foot ridge line approximately 36 miles SSW of Van Horn, Texas, when the pilot interrupted the terrain-following radar. 4 fatalities. The Air Force attributed the crash to pilot error. Aircraft had collided with a KC-135R over Nebraska on 24 Mar 1992, but was repaired.

Dec 01, 2018 #1287 2018-12-01T01:47

1863 - COLONNA was a Union stern-wheel steamer of 102 tons, built in 1859 at Brownsville, Pa. She was burned at Newburg, IN.

1863 - TECUMSEH was a Union side-wheel steamer of 418 tons, built in 1852 at Cincinnati that was lost at West Baton Rouge, LA.

1864 - NYMPH was a Union stern-wheel steamer of 35 tons, built in 1862 at Portsmouth, Ohio that was wrecked at Louisville, KY.

1952 - A USAF Douglas C-47B-50-DK Skytrain, 45-1124, crashes in the San Bernardino Mountains with 13 aboard "during a lashing storm while ferrying personnel from its home base, Offutt Air Force Base, Omaha, Nebraska to March Air Force Base near here." Search parties fly out of Norton Air Force Base, San Bernardino, California, and search snow-covered 8,000-foot (2,400 m) level near Big Bear Lake, where a sheriff's deputy reported seeing a fire on Monday night. The aircraft was last heard from at 2151 hrs. PST. Wreck found on 22 December at

11,485-foot (3,501 m) level of Mount San Gorgonio, buried twelve feet in the snow. All 13 killed while flying (KWF). One source gives crash date as 28 November.

1953 - A Navy trainer and an Air Force Douglas C-54 Skymaster hospital plane collide over the San Joaquin Delta but both make safe landings although badly damaged. The Navy men, logging flying time for credits, were Lt. J. L. Scoggins, pilot, and Lt. R. Taylor, of Berkeley. They recovered to NAS Alameda. The damaged C-54, which was believed to be en route to Kelly Field, Texas, was escorted back to its base at Travis AFB by a plane of the 41st Air Rescue Squadron, from Hamilton AFB. The C-54 pilot dealt with sticking landing gear but finally got it extended for a safe landing. It was not known how many were aboard the transport. The collision took place at 6,000 feet, between Stockton and Sacramento.

1961 - A U.S. Air Force North American F-100C Super Sabre of the 136th Tactical Fighter Squadron, 107th Tactical Fighter Group, New York Air National Guard, departs Niagara Falls Air Force Base, New York, on a training flight to Erie, Pennsylvania, but pilot Lt. Edward Metlot, of New York City, is informed by his wingman that his plane is on fire. He steers the fighter towards the Niagara River Gorge to avoid populated areas, ejecting at the last moment, the plane narrowly missing forty workmen on the Queenston-Lewiston Steel Arch Bridge. He lands along the American shoreline, the jet impacting on the riverbank and exploding below Niagara Falls.

1966 – Former USS Pheasant (MSF-61/AM-61) was sunk as a target.

1977 - US Coast Guard Boat 56022 sank in a storm. The boat was located by shipwreck explorers, Jim Kennard and Dan Scoville. While on route from Oswego to Niagara, NY, the 56-foot Coast Guard cable boat experienced 6-foot waves and winds of 50 mph as it approached Nine Mile Point on Lake Ontario. The boat, a converted landing craft (LCM) with an open deck, was taking water over the gunwale faster than the 3-man crew could pump it out.
The Charlotte Coast Guard Station dispatched its motor lifeboat to the scene where it found the 50-ton cable boat listing to its port side. They removed the crew and took the boat in tow, but a wave parted the line and the cable boat sank some seven miles west of Pultneyville, NY., and about a mile offshore.

1985 – Former USS Thuban (AKA-19) was under two from Hampton Roads, VA to Vigo, Spain for breaking up. She sank in mid-Atlantic when the tow line parted during heavy weather.

1989 - A leased CASA 212-300 Aviocar, 88–320, N296CA, c/n 296, operated by the US Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) for testing duties, crashes at NAS Patuxent River, Maryland. The crew had been conducting tests of tracking equipment during the short flight from Davison AAF at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Aircraft crashed and sank into the water

50 yards off shore, in 45 feet water, reportedly because the flight crew inadvertently selected "beta range" on the propellers at 800 feet, stalled and crashed into the river. Pilot CW4 Gaylord M. Bishop, copilot CW4 Howard E. Morton, SPC Peter Rivera-Santos, PFC Mark C. Elkins, and CIV Ronald N. Whiteley Jr. KWF.

Dec 02, 2018 #1288 2018-12-02T01:34

1946 – (1 or 2 December) A US Army Air Force A-26 Invader piloted by George A. Curry of the US Army Air Force 45th Reconnaissance Squadron, Furth, Germany, became lost in heavy, unfavorable weather while on a mission to Amsterdam, Netherlands, and eventually landed near the village of Egyek, northeast of Budapest, Hungary. The other crewman on board was Donald G. Gelnett. The landed safely and the aircraft was flyable, but very low on fuel. The local townspeople welcomed the Americans. Soviet Air Force officers questioned the crew and were satisfied once Curry let them develop the on-board film and they saw nothing of consequence (he had kept his classified maps and town plans hidden). On 6 December an American officer arrived from Budapest with enough fuel to get the A-26 out of the field, and on the 7th they flew over to the regular Budapest airfield. After an adequate refueling there, but hampered by weather delays, the crew and aircraft returned to their home base on 12 December via Vienna, Austria.

1959 - A USAF Douglas VC-47D Skytrain, 43-49024, c/n 14840/26285, built as C-47B-10-DK, crashes and burns in woods 10 miles (16 km) N of Oslo, Norway, killing all four on board. There was fog in the area at the time of the accident.

1964 - SAC Boeing B-47E Stratojet, 53-2398, of the 380th Bomb Wing, suffers collapse of forward main gear unit, skids off right side of runway at Plattsburgh AFB, New York, crew escapes safely. Airframe struck off charge 13 January 1965.

1966 - A U.S. Navy Beechcraft T-34C Turbo Mentor crashes at Maxwell Air Force Base in Montgomery, Alabama, killing the instructor and his student navigator from Italy. The pair, flying out of NAS Pensacola, Florida, were practicing maneuvers.

1967 – Former USS Cecil J. Doyle (DE-368) was sunk as a target off the California coast.

2004 - The pilot of a Blue Angels McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, BuNo 161956, ejects approximately one mile off Perdido Key, Florida, after reporting mechanical problems and loss of power. Lt. Ted Steelman suffered minor injuries and fully recovered.

2010 - USN McDonnell Douglas F/A-18C Hornet, BuNo 165184, 'AD-351', suffered port undercarriage collapse on landing at NAF El Centro, California, at 1615 hrs., and departs runway. The pilot ejects safely.

Dec 02, 2018 #1289 2018-12-02T22:28

1861 – Union vessel VIGILANT was en route in ballast from New York City to Sombrero in the West Indies, where her crew intended to collect guano. The 1,100-ton armed full-rigged ship was captured and burned in the North Atlantic Ocean several hundred miles southeast of Bermuda by merchant raider CSS SUMTER.

1864 - The Confederate 634-gross ton sidewheel paddle Steamer ELLA, a blockade runner with a cargo of Holland gin, munitions, and rifle-muskets, was forced aground near the lighthouse at Bald Head Point off Fort Holmes on the coast of North Carolina near the mouth of the Cape Fear River southeast of Cape Fear by the armed screw steamer USS EMMA and gunboat USS PEQUOT. Six ships of the US Navy’s South Atlantic Blockading Squadron and Confederate artillery shelled ELLA for two days, hitting her at least 40 times, before a U.S. Navy boat party boarded and burned her on 5 December.

1928 - The prototype Curtiss XF8C-2, BuNo A7673, crashes during a terminal-velocity dive, just days after its first flight. Another source cites the loss date as 23 December 1928.

1951 - A Boeing B-29A-45-BN Superfortress, 44-61797, of the 3417th AMS, 3415th AMG, Lowry AFB, Colorado, piloted by James W. Shanks, trying to reach Lowry Air Force Base in Denver, Colorado, with one motor not working crashed into a row of residential homes, killing eight airmen. At least one civilian and five airmen were injured. Five houses were damaged—four of them demolished.

1953 - Air Force cadet Orrin W. Vail, 21, Riverside, California, is killed when his Lockheed T-33A Shooting Star crashes five miles from James Connally Air Force Base, Waco, Texas.

1953 - Boeing B-47E-60-BW Stratojet, 51-2440, of the 303d Bomb Wing, on a training flight explodes in flight late Thursday and crashes into mountainous terrain NE of Tucson, Arizona. Officials at Davis-Monthan AFB identify the four dead as: Lt. Col. Douglas H. Bratcher, Dallas, Texas Maj. Heyward W. McEver, Teaneck, New Jersey Capt. Jesse G. Williams, Kenedy, Texas, all pilots and A1C William L. Child, Nevada, Iowa, a crew chief. A ground crew dispatched to the scene recovered all four bodies from the blackened wreckage.

1960 - A fully fueled Martin XSM-68-3-MA Titan I ICBM, 58-2254, a Lot V missile, V-2, being lowered into a silo at the Operational System Test Facility, Vandenberg AFB, California, following pre-launch tests, the ninth attempt at completing this test, drops to the bottom of the underground launch tube when the elevator fails. The missile explodes, wrecking the silo, which is never repaired. There were no injuries.

1961 - A USAF Douglas C-47 Skytrain departs Aviano Air Base, Italy, on a routine practice flight, and less than a half hour later crashes into a 4,000-foot fog-shrouded Alpine mountain, killing all four crew. The Associated Press reports from Udine, Italy, that the plane was a mere 15 feet short of clearing the peak. Rescue teams working their way up the mountainside are guided by the flaming wreckage.

1970 – Former USS Bluegill (SS/SSK/AGSS-242) was sunk and moored to the bottom as a salvage trainer about two kilometers off Lahaina, Hawaii in 40 metres (130 ft) of water. For the next 13 years, her hull was used for underwater rescue training. In November 1984, after a month of preparatory work, the twin Edenton-class salvage and rescue ships Beaufort (ATS-2) and Brunswick (ATS-3) raised ex-Bluegill and towed her to deep water where she was sunk with military honors.


Shenango China's Later Years

During the late 30’s, Mr. Smith became convinced that America would soon be in the war. He began building three bisque 70′ tunnel kilns and one 105′ kiln. Delayed steel shipment caused the kilns to be raised under circus tents. Wartime created many difficulties. Young skilled workers went off to war. Many employees went to work in defense industries, which paid higher wages.

Although government contracts made up over 50 percent of all production, critical materials forced substitutes. Due to this hardship, more creative methods of decorating, mixing color and packing were devised. In addition, during the war CIO-USWA won the right to represent the workers. With the end of the World War II, it became apparent that a balanced expansion would have to be achieved. The government ware made during the ware was one fire, plain white ware or with little decoration. In the post-war economy there would by a large demand for dinnerware and overglaze hotelware. A building plan was initiated in 1945 and completed in 1947. The addition contained 150,000 square feet for decoration and a 60,000 square foot building with a 200′ tunnel kiln was built for a new refractories division.

During the war, they also made the ceramic parts for land mines. A group of local businessmen including officers of Shenango formed a company for this express purpose. Later this led to a minority stockholder suit, which occupied the officers and directors for a ten-year period.

In the 1939-49 period Shenango had grown by ten times, but the company was in dire financial straits due to a number of circumstances one being the expensive expansion program had been made without long term financing. Application was made to the reconstruction finance corporation for a long-term loan. This was approved. Labor strife in the 1950’s had a drastic effect on the company’s fortunes as two strikes took place.

In 1954, the name was changed to Shenango China, Inc., bringing it back to the original 1901 name. Effort was made to mechanize. They developed the first fast fire kiln, which revolutionized the vitrified china industry. For the first time Shenango had a kiln that would fire glost ware as fast as one hour and ten minutes. Previously firing would take 36 to 40 hours. The Minority stockholders suit was finally settled in 1958. This resulted in the trustees of the Smith estate selling their controlling interest in Shenango China to Sobiloff Brothers. By 1959, all the stockholders had sold their shares to Sobiloff. The assets of Shenango China were transferred to a newly formed subsidiary of Sobiloff’s, Shenango Ceramics Inc. The working capital of the company was pledged for loans to finance other Sobiloff interests. Under the ownership of Sobiloff, Shenango purchased Wallace China on the West Coast and Mayer China in Beaver Falls, PA. These purchases added a new dimension to Shenango sales.

In 1968, Interpace Corporation bought Shenango Ceramics and her wholly owned subsidiaries. Interpace already manufactured Franciscan (earthenware) and fine china. Under the management of Interpace, the plant was expanded and modernized. A complete cup system, new bisque kilns and decorating kilns were built. They also introduced the “Valiela” decorating process, which greatly reduced the cost of print. Eleven years later, in 1979 Interpace sold the Shenango plant to Anchor Hocking Corporation of Lancaster, Ohio. Anchor Hocking continued to modernize, installing computerized body batch making, new clay forming, decorating, and firing equipment.

More changes soon were to come. In 1987, Anchor Hocking sold Shenango China to the Newell Company of Freeport, Illinois. Six months later they sold the plant to Canadian Pacific, the parent company of Syracuse China. Syracuse closed the plant and reorganized. Former employees had to reapply for their positions. Many were not hired back.

In 1989, Canadian Pacific decided to divest itself of its china manufacturers, selling Shenango, Mayer, and Syracuse to the Pfaltzgraff Company of York, PA. The Mayer operation was moved to the Shenango plant. Plans were made for further expansion, but the economic downturn and changes in demand resulted in consolidation and the eventual closing of the Shenango plant. The Shenango Indian had become an Onondaga.


  • Fecal occult blood test
  • Effects of age on blood pressure
  • Osteoporosis
  • Prostate cancer

Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older, United States, 2020. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html. Updated February 3, 2020. Accessed April 18, 2020.

American Academy of Ophthalmology website. Clinical statement: frequency of ocular examinations - 2015. www.aao.org/clinical-statement/frequency-of-ocular-examinations. Updated March 2015. Accessed April 18, 2020.

American Dental Association website. Your top 9 questions about going to the dentist - answered. www.mouthhealthy.org/en/dental-care-concerns/questions-about-going-to-the-dentist. Accessed April 18, 2020.

American Diabetes Association. 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: standards of medical care in diabetes-2020. Diabetes Care. 202043(Suppl 1):S14–S31. PMID: 31862745 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31862745/.

Atkins D, Barton M. The periodic health examination. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier 2020:chap 12.

Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines [published correction appears in J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Jun 2573(24):3237-3241]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 201973(24):e285-e350. PMID: 30423393 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30423393/.

Meschia JF, Bushnell C, Boden-Albala B, et al. Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 201445(12):3754-3832. PMID: 25355838 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25355838/.

Moyer VA US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for lung cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014160(5):330-338. PMID: 24378917 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24378917/.

Ridker PM, Libby P, Buring JE. Risk markers and the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier 2019:chap 45.

Siu AL US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for high blood pressure in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2015163(10):778-786. PMID: 26458123 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26458123/.

Smith RA, Andrews KS, Brooks D, et al. Cancer screening in the United States, 2019: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening. CA Cancer J Clin. 201969(3):184-210. PMID: 30875085 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30875085/.

Studenski S, Van Swearingen J. Falls. In: Fillit HM, Rockwood K, Young J, eds. Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier 2017:chap 103.


History of O-12 SS-73 - History

The topographic midlands on Venus comprise about 80% of the surface and an understanding of their mode of formation is essential to unraveling the geologic and geodynamic history of the planet. We explore this question by undertaking a comprehensive geological mapping of the Fredegonde Quadrangle (V-57, 50-75°S, 60-120°E, 1:5M scale) that represents the transition zone from the midlands to the lowlands at the edge of Lada Terra. We report on the geologic units and structures and the sequence of events and, thus, the major stages in the evolution of this region of the midlands. At earlier stages of evolution of the long-wavelength topography, broad (hundreds of kilometers wide) and relatively low (1-1.5 km high) topographic ridges formed due to sequential development of deformation zones, first of contractional ridge belts (NW orientation) and then crosscut by extensional groove belts (NE orientation). Arcuate swarms of graben within groove belts often form the rims of coronae and represent their tectonic component. This suggests that groove belts and coronae within the quadrangle formed simultaneously. Intersections of these deformation zones caused separation of the topography of the region into a series of broad, shallow equidimensional basins many hundreds of kilometers across and currently hundreds of meters up to a kilometer deep. Thus, the principal topographic features within the quadrangle were established near the beginning of its observable geological record. The basins then remained sites of accumulation of successive volcanic plains units such as shield plains (psh) and the lower unit of regional plains (rp 1 ). The flows of the younger plains, such as upper unit of regional plains (rp 2 ) and lobate plains (pl), are less voluminous, and flow down the current topographic gradients. This implies that the major topographic pattern of the Fredegonde quadrangle has been stable since its establishment. Further evidence for this is that the vast volcanic plains units (psh and rp 1 ) that postdate the heavily tectonized units of the deformation zones are only mildly deformed. This suggests that since the emplacement of shield plains, volcanism has been the primary geologic process and that the time of formation of unit psh corresponds to a major change from the earlier regime dominated by tectonics to the later volcanically dominated regime. Consistent age relationships among the main volcanic units within the quadrangle from older shield plains, through regional plains, to lobate plains, documents an evolution in volcanic style. Shield plains were formed from small eruptions from ubiquitous small shield volcanoes and are interpreted to be derived from broadly distributed and shallow magmatic sources. The lower unit of regional plains is widely distributed but vents and flow fronts are rare this unit is interpreted to represent massive and probably short-lived flood basalts-like eruptions that filled in the lowlands basins. The upper unit of regional plains (rp 2 ) and lobate plains (pl) are associated with localized and distinctive sources, such as late-stage volcanic activity at coronae. Thus, the tectonic stage of evolution of coronae (formation of the rims) and the volcanic stage when coronae served as magmatic centers and sourced lava flows, were separated in time by the emplacement of the shield and lower regional plains. How and when did the major components of Venus midland topography form? Clearly, in the Fredegonde quadrangle, regional deformation produced the deformation belts and groove belts/coronae in the earliest phases, and this topography formed the basis for the next, volcanic stage of emplacement (filling of the basins), with coronae-associated volcanism following this phase. The broad topography resulting from this early phase has persisted until the present. We compare this tectonic-volcanic sequence and history of topography in the Fredegonde quadrangle with other areas on Venus and find that the sequence has widespread application globally, and that the history of topography may be similar planet-wide.


'12 Years a Slave' is 'History in the Making'

This week's Sunday Spotlight shines on actress Lupita Nyong'o, a star in the newly released film "12 Years a Slave," whose performance has already created Oscars buzz. The movie chronicles the story of Solomon Northrup, a free black man who was kidnapped and sold back into slavery in the 18th century.

"I read the script before my very first audition and I was immediately taken by it. I had never really read anything like that," Nyong'o told ABC's Ron Claiborne.

At the time, Nyong'o, who was born in Mexico and raised in Kenya, was about to graduate from the Yale School of Drama. And despite the fact that she had never been in a Hollywood movie before, she was cast as Patsey, a young slave living on the same Louisiana plantation to which Northrup was sent.

Nyong'o describes the complexity of her character as something "that really sat with me and resonated because she was this zealous woman, genial, pleasant tempered. But really she wanted her death."

"I knew I had to do her justice and to play her with dignity and integrity," she said.

The film shines a light on this often ignored perspective in the history of slavery.

"I hadn't seen slavery in this way, where's it's really about an exploration of the institution of slavery," Nyong'o explained, calling the film "something that was going to be history in the making."

She went on to explain that "12 Years a Slave" is not only about adding to the history books, but about reopening dialogue around slavery.

"It's about us being able to talk about these things honestly and openly."

Although the conversations surrounding this film will not be light, Nyong'o hopes the movie has a positive impact on audiences.

"I hope audiences experience an openheartedness from watching this movie. I certainly did and I know a lot of people who have," she said. "You leave this movie and you just want to hug someone. You want to be nicer."

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Go here to find out when "This Week" is on in your area.


How Gunpowder Works

To summarize, black powder consists of a fuel (charcoal or sugar) and an oxidizer (saltpeter or niter), and sulfur, to allow for a stable reaction. The carbon from the charcoal plus oxygen forms carbon dioxide and energy. The reaction would be slow, like a wood fire, except for the oxidizing agent. Carbon in a fire must draw oxygen from the air. Saltpeter provides extra oxygen. Potassium nitrate, sulfur, and carbon react together to form nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases and potassium sulfide. The expanding gases, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, provide the propelling action.

Gunpowder tends to produce a lot of smoke, which can impair vision on a battlefield or reduce the visibility of fireworks. Changing the ratio of the ingredients affects the rate at which the gunpowder burns and the amount of smoke that is produced.


Warship Wednesday July 13, 2016: The tale of the pre-owned polar sub

Here at LSOZI, we are going to take off every Wednesday for a look at the old steam/diesel navies of the 1859-1946 time period and will profile a different ship each week. These ships have a life, a tale all of their own, which sometimes takes them to the strangest places.- Christopher Eger

Warship Wednesday, July 13, 2016: The tale of the pre-owned polar sub

Courtesy of Donald M. McPherson, 1978 #: NH 86969

Here we see the O-class diesel-electric submarine USS O-12 (SS-73) at the Lake Torpedo Boat Co., Bridgeport, Connecticut, on 7 October 1918, just before her completion. Although her Naval service during the Great War and immediately after was limited, her mark on history was not.

The U.S. Navy, dating back to the Revolutionary War’s Turtle and the Civil War’s Alligator, was a world leader in submarine development.

Starting with the 64-ton gas/electric USS Holland (SS-1) in 1900, the Navy proceeded with the 7-vessel Plunger-class 3-ship Viper/B-class 5-ship Octopus/C-class (the first United States submarines with two-shaft propulsion and an overall length longer than 100-feet) 3-ship Narwhal/D-class (designed to survive flooding in one compartment) 2-ship E-class (first US diesel-powered submarines and first with bow-planes) 4-ship F-class 4-ship G-class 9-ship H-class 8-ship K-class 11 L-class boats (first US submarine class equipped with a deck gun) the unique M-1 (world’s first double-hulled design) 3 large 1,500-ton AA-1-class boats capable of 20-knots and 7 smaller N-class boats (first US Navy submarine class completed with metal bridge shields) by 1917.

In all, some 67 submersibles were built in less than two decades, with each teaching a lesson.

This led to the most capable class of U.S. Navy subs commissioned in World War I, the O-class.

Originally designed to fight off German U-boats along the East Coast, the boats of this class were not gigantic (500-600 tons, 173 feet oal) but had a decent 5,500 nm range and could carry 8 torpedoes as well as a deck gun. Laid down in five different yards (and two slightly different designs, one by Electric Boat the other by Lake) on both coasts starting in March 1916, all 16 were completed in 1918.

Built for $550,000 each, they were the first U.S. boats with really reliable diesel engines as well as the first in which each officer and man had his own berth and locker (even later designs would require “hot-bunking” well into the 1970s)

Wartime service on the O-class was limited, with two being shelled by an armed British steamer who thought them to be U-boats being the closest they came to combat.

The hero of our tale, USS O-12, was laid down at the Mr. Simon Lake’s Torpedo Boat Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut and commissioned 18 October 1918.

USS O-12 (SS-73) Photographed as she left her dock at the Lake Torpedo Boat Co., to start her official trials, Bridgeport, Connecticut, 21 August 1918. Note damaged bridge in the background. #: NH 44559

Made part of Submarine Division 1, she was sent with several sisters to secure the Panama Canal, where she spent almost all of her U.S. Naval career.

USS O-12 (Submarine # 73) At Coco Solo, Panama Canal Zone in February 1920. Donation of Lieutenant Gustave Freret, USN (Retired), 1971. U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph. Catalog #: NH 74644

“O” Class Submarines photographed in Panama by A.E. Wells of Washington, D.C., circa 1919, with S.S. SOTHERLAND in background. Subs are (l-r): O-12 (SS-73), O-15 (SS-76), O-16 (SS-77), O-14 (SS-75), O-13 (SS-74), O-11 (SS-72).#: NH 44558

Submarines O-12, O-14, O-11, and others in dry-dock circa 1919 with floating Derrick No. 5 (YD-5). Description: Courtesy Philadelphia evening ledger. #: NH 42566

On 17 June 1924, after just a few years in commission, she was pulled from service along with all of her Lake Torpedo Boat Company design sisters, replaced by newer R and S-class submarines. Meanwhile, nine of her Electric Boat-designed classmates continued service (one, USS O-5, was lost in a collision on 28 October 1923).

Rusting away in Philadelphia, O-12 was stricken on 29 July 1930 and was soon leased for $1 per year (with a maximum of five years in options) to Lake’s company for use as a private research submarine– as far as I can tell the first time this occurred. As part of the lease, she was disarmed and had to be either returned to the Navy or scuttled in at least 1,200 feet of water after her scientific use.

Australian explorer and man of letters Sir George Hubert Wilkins, MC & Bar, and American polar explorer and philanthropist Lincoln Ellsworth (whose family bankrolled Roald Amundsen’s 1925 attempt to fly from Svalbard to the North Pole) hammered out a deal to use the retired sub on a private trip to the North.

Simon Lake was all-in and made tremendous modifications to the ex-O-12.

Cutaway illustration of the O-12/Nautilus for Modern Mechanics magazine, 1931

The prow of the submarine was equipped with a rounded plunger, which served as extra protection while diving under the ice. Her topside structure cleared for operating under ice, she was outfitted with a custom-designed drill that would allow her to bore through the ice pack overhead for ventilation and even transfer crew through the pack.

Elevating conning tower showing crewman exiting through the tube on to the ice

All 18 crewmembers–mostly ex-Navy men– had to sign a contract indemnifying Lake, the submarine’s skipper Sloan Danenhower and the Expedition against damages, including particularly claims for death.

Jean Jules Verne, grandson of Jules Verne, author of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea was present at christening, at the invitation of Lake, and the ship was named Nautilus. She was christened with a bucket of ice cubes.

Ellsworth contributed $90,000 to the project while newspaper tycoon Randolph Hearst added $61,000 for exclusive rights to the story. The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute pitched in $35,000 and even Wilkins chipped in $25,000 of his own money. There were also several moneymaking tie-ins.

During the expedition, special radio telegrams were sent as were a series of 12,655 postal covers (mailed during the voyage at London, Bergen, Spitsbergen and from an unidentified port at the end of the expedition. The basic fee was 75 cents per cover for the first three legs, $1 for the final leg with additional fees for registry service and autographs.)

However, things started going bad almost immediately.

A June 1931 crossing to Europe almost ended in failure had Nautilus not been towed by the battleship USS Wyoming in the mid-Atlantic and emergency repairs in England. Setting out from Norway in August, they only had 600 miles to go to reach the Pole and make history.

Nautilus in the dry dock in Devonport, England undergoing repairs to the engines and other items things that failed during the first part of the voyage

Ex O Class Submarine USS O-12 pictured loading what looks like powdered milk at Bergen in 1930.

Nautilus reached 82°N, the farthest north any vessel had reached under its own power, and preparations began to dive –the first submarine to operate under the polar ice cap.

Captain Sloan Danenhower opening the conning tower hatch following a dive. A huge cake of ice can be seen jammed on the main ice drill

The Nautilus in the Arctic, 1931.

The thing is, she was missing her diving planes, suffering from mechanical issues, facing thicker ice than anticipated, and fighting severe storms and by September had to turn back for Spitsbergen and then Norway, for repairs, without ever reaching the Pole.

There in Norway, Wilkins threw in the towel on Nautilus and agreed with the Navy to sink her in deep water outside Bergen, which was done 30 November 1931.

Her wreck, in over 1,100 feet of water, was found in 1985 and has been visited several times since then. In good condition, the Bergen Maritime Museum has an extensive exhibit on her though there are no plans to raise this world’s first Arctic submarine.

As for her sisters, the five other Lake designs were scrapped in 1930, USS O-9 (SS-70) and her 33 officers and men were lost on a test dive in 1941, and seven Electric-design classmates served through World War II at New London training thousands of students at the Submarine School, being scrapped in 1946. Few enduring relics remain of the class.

The Ohio State University Libraries have an extensive online exhibit on Nautilus as does PigBoats.com from which many of the images in this post originate. Dr. Stewart B. Nelson has a great post covering the vessel and her discovery here while the Universal Ship Cancellation Society Log details the philately history of the Nautilus covers in a way far outside the scope of this post.

Wilkins’ 1931 book “Under the North Pole: the Wilkins-Ellsworth Submarine Expedition” is available for download free online in multiple formats.

After his death, the Navy later took his ashes to the North Pole aboard the submarine USS Skate on 17 March 1959. The Navy confirmed on 27 March that, “In a solemn memorial ceremony conducted by Skate shortly after surfacing, the ashes of Sir Hubert Wilkins were scattered at the North Pole in accordance with his last wishes.”

Simon Lake’s O-12 (SS-73) retained his trademark stern and amidships planes (shown folded down in the outboard view). Note the separate flooding ports in the watertight superstructure. Drawing by Jim Christley, text courtesy of U.S. Submarines Through 1945, An Illustrated Design History by Norman Friedman. Naval Institute Press. Via Navsource

O-12 (SS-73) was discarded in 1930 to be rebuilt by Lake & Danenhower Inc., of Bridgeport CT., for the Wilkins Arctic expedition. Lake had long thought about submarine operations under ice in 1903, he built a trestle atop his Protector and deliberately operated her in iced waters. The Nautilus conversion, shown here, was far more sophisticated. Drawing by Jim Christley, text courtesy of U.S. Submarines Through 1945, An Illustrated Design History by Norman Friedman. Naval Institute Press. Via Navsource

Displacement:
491 long tons (499 t) surfaced
566 long tons (575 t) submerged
Length: 175 ft. (53 m)
Beam: 16 ft. 7 in (5.05 m)
Draft: 13 ft. 11 in (4.24 m)
Propulsion:
Diesel-electric
2 × 500 hp (373 kW) Busch Sulzer diesel engines
2 × 400 hp (298 kW) Diehl electric motors
1 shaft
18,588 US gallons (70,360 l 15,478 imp gal) fuel
Speed:
14 knots (26 km/h 16 mph) surfaced
11 knots (20 km/h 13 mph) submerged
Test depth: 200 ft (61 m)
Complement: 2 officers, 27 men (Naval service), 20 scientists, explorers, and crew in civilian
Armament: (Disarmed 1930)
4 × 18 in (457 mm) torpedo tubes, 8 torpedoes
1 × 3″/50 caliber deck gun

If you liked this column, please consider joining the International Naval Research Organization (INRO), Publishers of Warship International

They are possibly one of the best sources of naval study, images, and fellowship you can find http://www.warship.org/membership.htm

The International Naval Research Organization is a non-profit corporation dedicated to the encouragement of the study of naval vessels and their histories, principally in the era of iron and steel warships (about 1860 to date). Its purpose is to provide information and a means of contact for those interested in warships.

Nearing their 50th Anniversary, Warship International, the written tome of the INRO has published hundreds of articles, most of which are unique in their sweep and subject.


Watch the video: History of the. 1981, PBS documentary (July 2022).


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